The structure was begun in 1654 and completed in 1658 under the orders of the Wallachian prince, Serban Basarab. The facade is in the Brancovenesc style. All of the original frescoes and sculptures were destroyed, except for the icon of Constantin and Helen, who are the patron saints of the cathedral. The present-day frescoes were added in 1923 by Dimitrie Belizarie
In 1862, the Romanian Prime Minister, Barbu Catargiu, was assassinated as his open carriage passed in front of the cathedral.